Natke, U., Donath, Th.M., & Kalveram, K.Th. (2003) Control of voice fundamental frequency in speaking versus singing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113(3), 1587-1593.

In order to investigate control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) in speaking and singing, twenty-four adults had to utter the nonsense word ['ta:tatas] repeatedly, while in selected trials their auditory feedback was frequency-shifted by 100 cents downwards. In the speaking condition the target speech rate and prosodic pattern were indicated by a rhythmic sequence made of white noise. In the singing condition the sequence consisted of piano notes, and subjects were instructed to match the pitch of the notes. In both conditions a response in voice F0 begins with a latency of about 150 ms. As predicted, response magnitude is greater in the singing condition (66 cents) than in the speaking condition (47 cents). Furthermore the singing condition seems to prolong the after-effect which is a continuation of the response in trials after the frequency shift. In the singing condition, response magnitude and the ability to match the target F0 correlate significantly. Results support the view that in speaking voice F0 is monitored mainly supra-segmentally and controlled less tightly than in singing.

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